Modern kinetic weapons are fairly diverse, though traditional chemical propellant slug throwers are on a decline to newer types. Most modern kinetic weapons are either Electrothermal-Chemical (ETC) weapons or are ‘railguns/Gauss’ weapons. Stallag weapons tends to be an exception, often being more traditional chemical types.
Electrothermal-Chemical weapons augment chemical energy with electrical power. A controlled plasma burn provides a smoother and more complete utilization of propellant, increasing the projectile velocity without a significant increase in recoil.
‘Railguns/Gauss’ weapons use magnetic fields to accelerate projectiles to very high velocities. This translates into high accuracy, range, and kinetic damage. They do not require chemical propellant, which makes storing ammunition safer (less risk of fire or explosion) and reduces the magazine weight and volume.
Kinetic Weapon Chart
The thing that makes kinetic weapons so versatile is their ammo, the list of ammo is here: